Create Always Encrypted Certificate

In SSMS, browse to Database, Security, Always Encrypted Keys, right click Column Master Keys and click New Column Master Key:

In the New Column Master Key box you can choose from several key stores. The most popular stores are Current User or Current Machine. See below for description.

Local machine certificate store
This type of certificate store is local to the computer and is global to all users on the computer. This certificate store is located in the registry under the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE root.

Current user certificate store
This type of certificate store is local to a user account on the computer. This certificate store is located in the registry under the HKEY_CURRENT_USER root.

Be aware that all current user certificate stores inherit the contents of the local machine certificate stores. For example, if a certificate is added to the local machine Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store, all current user Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate stores also contain the certificate.

In this example, we’ll use Local Machine. Type a name for the Master Key, choose Key Store and click Generate Certificate.

Click OK and a new Column Master Key will appear:

Do the same for any other master keys you would like to create. For example, Developer:

To create a Column Encryption Key, right click on Column Encryption Key and choose New Column Encryption key:

Give the key a name and select the Column Master Key that you would like to associate it with:

Do the same for the Developer keys. You should have two column master keys and two column encryption keys:

To view Local Machine certificates:

Open Certlm.msc

Browse to Personal, Certificates:

Double click a certificate and go to the Detail tab where you will see the thumbprint:

Match this thumbprint with the Column Master Key in SSMS:

Right click the certificate in Certlm.msc and choose Properties. Enter a friendly name to identify which certificate belongs with the Column Master Key.

To Export and certificate, right click and choose All Tasks, Export:

Managing the Transaction Log

In this post, I’ll discuss some tasks that you can do to manage the transaction log. The transaction log is very important to SQL Server and there are books alone on how to manage the log so this will be an introduction post.

Where do I start? The transaction log is an integral part of SQL Server. Every database has a transaction log that is stored within the log file that is separate from the data file. A transaction log basically records all database modifications. When a user issues an INSERT, for example, it is logged in the transaction log. This enables the database to roll back or restore the transaction if a failure were to occur and prevents data corruption. For example, let’s say Sue is using an application and inserts 2000 rows of data. While SQL Server is processing this data let’s say someone pulls the plug on the server. (Again, this is just an example, I hope nobody would actually do this). Because the INSERT statement was writing to the transaction log and it knows a failure occurred it will roll back the statement. If this wasn’t put in place, could you imagine having to sift through the data to see how many rows it inserted and then change the code to insert the remaining rows? Or even better, what if the application inserted random columns in no order and you had to determine what data was inserted and what data was left out? This could take forever!

The transaction log supports the following:

ROLLBACK TRANSACTION – If a user or application issues the ROLLBACK statement, or if the DB engine detects a failure, the log records are used to roll back the transaction.

Recover Incomplete Transactions – If you have ever started SQL Server from a failure you may have noticed databases in the (In Recovery) mode:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Transaction Log

This is an indication that SQL Server is rolling back transactions that did not complete before the SQL Server was restarted or it is rolling forward all modifications that were recorded in the log but not written to the data file.

Rolling a restored DB, file, filegroup, or page forward to the point of failure – If SQL Server were to fail and you need to restore the database back to the point in which the failure occurred you can as long as you are using the FULL recovery model. Start with a full backup, then apply the latest differential, and the subsequent transaction log backups up to the point of failure.

High availability solutions – Transactional replication, mirroring, and log shipping all use the transaction log.

Transaction Log Truncation

One thing that I see a lot of administrators ask about is transaction log size and how to truncate it. Log records that are not managed correctly will eventually fill up the disk causing no more modifications to the database. Transaction log growth can occur for a few different reasons. Long running transactions, incorrect recovery model configuration and lack of log backups can grow the log.

Log truncation frees up space in the log file so the transaction log can reuse it. Unless there is some kind of unexpected delay, log truncation will occur automatically after a checkpoint (if the database is in SIMPLE recovery model) or after a log backup (if the database is in FULL or BULK-LOGGED recovery model). offers plenty of tips regarding transaction log truncation.

Recovery Models

I mentioned recovery models above so I’ll give a brief overview of each one…

Full – In the Full recovery model, log files should be backed up on a regular basis to prevent the disk from filling up the drive. Also, in the Full recovery model, you can restore a database to the point of failure depending on your log backup schedules. This is the default for the model database in SQL Server. If you leave this recovery model set to Full, make sure you schedule log backups.

Simple – In the Simple recovery model, transaction log backups cannot be used. This means that SQL Server will automatically reclaim disk space at certain intervals, which can be good, but it also means that if a failure were to occur you can only restore back to the last full backup since all transactions are lost in between. This is generally used in development environments.

Bulk Logged – In the Bulk Logged recovery model, certain large scale or bulk copy operations are minimally logged. I have never left a database in the Bulk Logged recovery model for a large amount of time. I usually will have a database in the Full recovery model and if I’m doing a bulk insert and don’t need to log the transactions, I’ll switch to Bulk Logged and then back to Full once this is complete. Bulk Logged, however, does support log backup and point in time recovery.

Backup the Log File

When using the Full or Bulk Logged recovery models it is recommended to backup the transaction log regularly. Remember, when the log is backed up, it will automatically truncate.

Before you backup the transaction log, you must have a full backup otherwise you will get an error:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Transaction Log

You can perform a backup using SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) or the following syntax:

TO DISK = N'D:\Backups\Demo.bak'

Monitoring the Log

Monitoring the log file is very important and SQL Server has made it fairly easy for us to do this. One way to find information about the log is in the catalog view sys.database_files. This view returns information about data and log files that include type of file, name, location, state, size, growth, etc. The following query will filter down to only the log file and displays some very useful information:

SELECT name AS [File Name], physical_name AS [Physical Name], size/128.0 AS [Total Size in MB], size/128.0 - CAST(FILEPROPERTY(name, 'SpaceUsed') AS int)/128.0 AS [Available Space In MB], [growth], [file_id]
FROM sys.database_files
WHERE type_desc = 'LOG'

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Transaction LogYou can also use DBCC SQLPERF (‘logspace’) which has been around for a while. This command displays useful details such as DB name, Log Size (MB) and Log Space Used (%):

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Transaction Log

Controlling the growth of the transaction log can help in performance issues. To change the growth increment, use the FILEGROWTH option. A value of 0 indicates that automatic growth is set to off and no additional space is permitted. A small autogrowth increment on a log file can reduce performance. The file growth increment on a log file should be sufficiently large to avoid frequent expansion. The default growth increment of 10 percent is generally suitable.

As you can see, the transaction log is used throughout SQL Server, and the information above will get you started managing the transaction log. There are multiple items that I did not cover in this tip that include:

  • Modifying the log file
  • Shrinking the log file
  • Adding/Removing a log file
  • How a log file is used in High Availability solutions
  • How to restore to a point in time

Creating a Table Warehouse to Retain Historical Data for a SQL Server Table

A lot of applications, including SCOM and even SSRS groom their databases so they don’t grow out of control. For instance, in SSRS there is a table called ExecutionLogStorage in the ReportServer database. This table holds details about report executions. SSRS grooms this table so that it only keeps a specified number of days of data. This is good for performance reasons obviously because the larger the table grows, the worse it will perform. However, what if you need to keep more days than specified? You can probably change the number of days in a config file but then the table will begin to grow and the server will not perform optimally. In cases like this, I like to create what I call a table warehouse. A table warehouse is basically a new table that stores data from another table, but doesn’t get groomed. A table warehouse will grow much larger than the source table, but the application doesn’t use this table so it shouldn’t effect performance, but it will effect disk space so make sure you plan accordingly. This is basically a data warehouse, but I like to think of a data warehouse as more than one table and I usually transform and massage the data before I move it to a data warehouse.

Some reasons why you might want to create a table warehouse include archiving data and reporting on older data that may get deleted in the future.

You can probably create this type of table several different ways but I like to use the UNION operator. In this post, I’ll show you the statement I use and we’ll walk through it.

First, let’s look at the ExecutionLogStorage table:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Table Warehouse

This table stores information such as InstanceName, UserName, Format, Parameters, Start/End Time, etc. By default, it only stores information for 60 days. Every night, SSRS grooms this table so that the 61st day of data is deleted. We need to keep more than 60 days of data so that’s where the table warehouse comes into play.

First thing we’ll need to do is create our table warehouse table that will hold the data. I don’t need all the columns from the ExecutionLogStorage table so I’ll just create my table warehouse to store InstanceName, UserName, Format, TimeStart, TimeEnd, TimeProcessing, Status, ByteCount and RowCount.

  CREATE TABLE [dbo].[ExecutionLogStorageTW](
 [InstanceName] [nvarchar](38) NOT NULL,
 [UserName] [nvarchar](260) NULL,
 [Format] [nvarchar](26) NULL,
 [TimeStart] [datetime] NOT NULL,
 [TimeEnd] [datetime] NOT NULL,
 [TimeProcessing] [int] NOT NULL,
 [Status] [nvarchar](40) NOT NULL,
 [ByteCount] [bigint] NOT NULL,
 [RowCount] [bigint] NOT NULL

Next we can use the following query to see the differences between the ExecutionLogStorage table and our new ExecutionLogStorageTW table:

SELECT MIN(TableName) AS TableName
 SELECT 'ELS' AS TableName
 FROM [ReportServer].[dbo].[ExecutionLogStorage] els


 FROM [ReportServer].[dbo].[ExecutionLogStorageTW] elstw
 ) tmp
GROUP BY InstanceName

This query will UNION all the results from ExecutionLogStorage and ExecutionLogStorageTW and display the data that is different. As you can see from the results below there are 72325 results that are different. The TableName column displays the table that the data resides in, therefore you can see that all the data resides in the ELS (ExecutionLogStorage) table.

Since ExecutionLogStorageTW is empty it should show the exact results as:

SELECT * FROM [ReportServer].[dbo].[ExecutionLogStorage]

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SQL Server Index Properties in Management Studio

Understanding indexes and how they work can be complicated enough for a Jr. DBA, but throw in all the different options and properties and an index can soon be overwhelming. In this post, I’ll discuss the different options available when creating a basic index.

To create an index using SSMS, expand the tree for a table and right click on Indexes and select New Index: (This tip will not discuss the anatomy of an index, but will focus on the properties.)

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Index Properties

After choosing the index type, you will notice that there a few tabs on the left side that will define how your index will act. These tabs will differ between SSMS versions but basically have the same information. In this tip, we’ll be using SQL Server 2012 SSMS.

The first tab, General, is where you can set the index name, the key columns, and the included columns (if any). This tab also shows the table name and index type you selected:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Index Properties
The next tab, Options, is where you can view or modify the properties for the index:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Index Properties

Let’s go over each property.

Index Properties Options Page

We will begin with the options page.

Auto recompute statistics

This property defines whether or not you want SQL Server to automatically update the index statistics. Best practice is to leave this option set to True, otherwise you will have to manually update the statistics.

According to Microsoft, statistics are considered outdated when the following happens:

  • The table size has gone from 0 to >0 rows.
  • The number of rows in the table when the statistics were gathered was 500 or less, and the column modification counters (colmodctr) of the leading column of the statistics object has changed by more than 500 since then.
  • The table had more than 500 rows when the statistics were gathered, and the colmodctr of the leading column of the statistics object has changed by more than 500 + 20% of the number of rows in the table when the statistics were gathered.

Outdated statistics can lead to performance problems.

As the link above states, the statistics auto update is triggered by query optimization or by execution of a complied plan, and it involves only a subset of the columns referred to in the query.

Ignore duplicate values

This property specifies where a duplicate key value can be inserted into the column that is part the index. If set to “True”, SQL Server will issue a warning when an INSERT statement is about to create a duplicate key and will ignore the duplicate row. If this option is set to “False”, SQL Server will issue an error message and rolls back the INSERT statement.


In this example (AdventureWorks2012.Person.Person), I have a Non-clustered, unique index. My key column is rowguid.

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Index Properties
I’ve set the Ignore duplicate values to “False”

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Index Properties

If I try to INSERT a duplicate value for rowguid, I get the following error:

Msg 2601, Level 14, State 1, Line 1 Cannot insert duplicate key row in object ‘Person.Person’ with unique index ‘AK_Person_rowguid’. The duplicate key value is (92c4279f-1207-48a3-8448-4636514eb7e2). The statement has been terminated.

If I change the Ignore duplicate values to “True” and try to INSERT a duplicate value for rowguid I get the following:

(0 row(s) affected)

As you can see, neither of these inserted the duplicate value because it was a UNIQUE index but one returned an error message and ended the statement while the other didn’t return an error. If I was inserting multiple records the first message would have rolled back the transaction while the second message would have inserted all the unique values and skipped over the unique record.

The default value for this option is “False” and can only be used on UNIQUE indexes.

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Change Schema on all SQL tables

Today I ran into a problem where all of my SQL Server tables used a different schema than dbo and the application couldn’t understand the different schema. Using the ALTER SCHEMA statement you can chance the schema of a table, for example, the following statement will change the schema from compmsauser to dbo.

ALTER SCHEMA dbo TRANSFER compmsauser.tablename

This works perfectly unless you have to change hundreds of table schemas. The following query will create the T-SQL needed to change every table: (change the WHERE clause to the schema you need to replace)

SELECT 'ALTER SCHEMA dbo TRANSFER ' + s.Name + '.' + o.Name
FROM sys.Objects o
INNER JOIN sys.Schemas s on o.schema_id = s.schema_id
WHERE s.Name = 'compmsauser'
And (o.Type = 'U' Or o.Type = 'P' Or o.Type = 'V')

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Schema Changes
This query will create the ALTER SCHEMA statement for you! All you have to do now is copy and paste all of the results in a new query window and execute.

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Schema Changes

Identify and Correct SQL Server Forwarded Records

Forwarded records in SQL Server can cause performance issues on heap tables because the record outgrows the page and the database engine uses pointers to reference the data. For those that don’t know what a heap is, it is a table without a clustered index. The best practice is to have a clustered index on every table, however, sometimes there are cases when a clustered index is not needed. In this case, DBA’s should be aware of all heap tables and should be concerned about forwarded records causing poor performance.  In this post, I’ll discuss forwarded records and how fix them.

Forwarded records are records in a SQL Server table that have grown too large for the page that it currently resides on.  These types of records can only be found in heaps because tables with a clustered index keep the data sorted based on the clustered index.  With a heap, once the record outgrows the page, the record is moved to a new page and a forwarding pointer is left in the original location to point to the new location.

Let’s look at an example of a forwarding record.

First, let’s create a table and insert some records:

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Demo](
 [ID] [int] IDENTITY(1,1),
 [Server] [nvarchar](50) NULL,
 [DatabaseName] [nvarchar](100) NULL,
 [timestamp] [datetime] default getdate())
    CREATE INDEX idx_Server ON Demo(Server)
    VALUES  ('Server1', 'DB1') 
    VALUES  ('Server2', 'DB2')
    VALUES  ('Server3', 'DB3')
GO 100

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Forwarded Records
Next, let’s use the following DMV query to check our table:

    OBJECT_NAME(ps.object_id) as TableName, as IndexName,
FROM sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats (DB_ID(), NULL, NULL, NULL, 'DETAILED') AS ps
INNER JOIN sys.indexes AS i
    AND ps.index_id = i.index_id
WHERE OBJECT_NAME(ps.object_id) = 'Demo'

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Forwarded Records

Notice that the HEAP index type has 0 forwarded records.

Next we will change the table definition by modifying the DatabaseName column.

ALTER TABLE Demo ALTER COLUMN [DatabaseName] nvarchar(MAX)

If we run the DMV query again you will see that the forwarded_record_count has changed (along with a lot of fragmentation):

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Forwarded Records

The page count increased to 3 on the HEAP indicating that a new page was created and 50 forwarded records were created.

In a real world situation you will probably not know exactly when this happens so by changing the WHERE clause in the DMV query you can find all the forwarded records in a database. I would monitor heap tables at least monthly and if you notice high I/O on a heap, then that should be a hint that something needs to be looked at and possibly modified.

    OBJECT_NAME(ps.object_id) as TableName, as IndexName,
FROM sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats (DB_ID(), NULL, NULL, NULL, 'DETAILED') AS ps
INNER JOIN sys.indexes AS i
    AND ps.index_id = i.index_id
WHERE forwarded_record_count > 0

On my Test DB, you will notice I have two HEAP tables that have forwarded records including the one I just created.

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Forwarded Records
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Understanding Column Properties for a SQL Server Table

Designing a table can be a little complicated if you don’t have the correct knowledge of data types, relationships, and even column properties. In this post, I’ll go over the column properties and provide examples.

To create a new table using SSMS, expand the tree for a database and right click on Tables and select “New Table…” as shown below.

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Table Column Properties
A new window will open and once you enter a Column Name and a Data Type you will see the appropriate Column Properties for that data type as shown below:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Table Column Properties

Note: Some properties only appear for certain data types

OK, let’s go over each property.


Name, simply, is the name of the column. You can change the name of the column in the table design view or in the column properties.

Allow Nulls

Allow Nulls indicates whether or not the column will allow null values. If the column does not allow null values then some sort of data must be put into this record. You can change this value in the table design view by checking/unchecking the Allow Nulls box or from the column properties.

Data Type

Data type, like its name implies, is the type of data stored for the column. You can learn more about data types in this article. You can change the data type in the table design view or the column properties.

Default Value or Binding

The Default Value option will allow you to enter a default value in case a value is not specified in an insert statement. For example, let’s say we have three columns in a table named Demo (Column1, Column2, and Column3) and we put a value of 50 in the Default Value or Binding for Column2.

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Table Column Properties

In the query below we are inserting data to Column1 and Column3, but nothing for Column2 so this will get the default value of 50.

INSERT INTO DEMO (Column1, Column3)
VALUES (1, ‘Brady Upton')

Our result set should be:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Table Column Properties
By creating a default value, this also creates a default constraint automatically as well as shown below:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Table Column Properties


Length displays the number of characters for character-based data types. For example, nvarchar(50) has a length of 50. You can change the length in table design view or column properties.


Collation can be specified at the instance level, database level, and even down to the column level. This property displays the collating sequence that SQL Server applies to the column. To change the collation using column properties, click the ellipsis and choose the collation:

SQL Freelancer SQL Server Table Column Properties

Computed Column Specification

Computed Column Specification displays information about a computed column. A computed column is a logical column that is not physically stored in the table unless the column is marked as Persisted (see Is Persisted below)

  • Formula: This field is where you can use formula’s. (See below for an example)
  • Is Persisted: This field indicates whether the results of the formula are stored in the database or are calculated each time the column is referenced

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